We’ll post a few times a month on relevant research, timely topics, tips from the kitchen and frequently asked questions. To join the conversation, please check out our facebook page.

*The information on this blog and website is for informational purposes only. It is not meant to replace careful evaluation and treatment of a child. If you have concerns about your child’s eating or nutrition or growth, consult your child’s doctor.

What is “Responsive” Feeding Therapy?

What is “Responsive” Feeding Therapy?

Responsive feeding therapy is facilitating (re)discovery of internal cues, curiosity and strengths, while building skills (mastery).   “You don’t teach development, development is discovery.” Serena Wieder PhD (video on DIR Floortime)   Responsive therapies respond to each child, meeting the child where he or she is, not following a strict protocol without deviation.         By necessity, this occurs within a relationship. The primary is between the parent and the child, otherwise known as the “feeding relationship.” (Satter, Chatoor…)     Responsive feeding and feeding therapies also happen in relationship between the child and any adult feeding or providing food and meals to the child, and with any therapists involved in more formal therapies.     “Happiness is the most important factor at mealtimes and in therapy programs to help children develop feeding skills.” Suzanne Evans Morris SLP PhD Therapist and author, Pre-Feeding Skills     What do you think? What do responsive feeding therapies mean to you? Share this... read more
Feeding Therapy Approaches Differ When Children Struggle to Eat: Find the Right Help for Your Family

Feeding Therapy Approaches Differ When Children Struggle to Eat: Find the Right Help for Your Family

The article, When Your Baby Won’t Eat chronicles the heartbreak and triumph of one family’s journey with pediatric feeding struggles. The author and mother shares some of the confusion around finding the right help for her family. Virginia Sole-Smith writes, “Do you try to correct the behavior- training a child to eat well –Pavlov Style- or do you try to rediscover that primal urge and trust her to take it from there? It’s a divisive question among the doctors and therapists who work with children like Violet, as well as a debate unfolding consciously or not, around most kitchen tables in the country.” Feeding therapy programs differ; from the ABA, or applied behavioral approach on one end of the spectrum (the Pavlovian approach) where adults may hold a child’s hands down, may use “gentle mandibular guidance” and “escape extinction“, to a more responsive approach where the child’s reactions and behaviors are not viewed as behaviors to eliminate, but as vital communication and clues to guide treatment. Confusing for parents is that many treatment programs, even with opposing approaches, sound the same online, using words like “child-led” and “family-centered” to the point that parents might have no idea what is actually happening in therapy. Parents, we know it is beyond confusing; experts in the field of feeding kids often express opposite viewpoints, with OTs, SLPs, MDs, RDs, PhDs disagreeing on the best ways to treat pediatric feeding challenges. Consider the following sentiments, from folks in positions of authority. Which is “correct”? Never force your child to eat. You’re the parent, it’s the same as with seat-belts, just make them eat it! If your child gags the puree,... read more
Is STEPs+ Approach “Enough” for Children with Complex Developmental or Medical Challenges?

Is STEPs+ Approach “Enough” for Children with Complex Developmental or Medical Challenges?

The following is Jenny’s (SLP, co-author) response to a comment that the STEPs+ approach described in our book, Helping Your Child with Extreme Picky Eating may not be “enough” for children with complex medical or developmental problems. The comment implied that the approach was solely about placing food on the child’s tray day after day; the response follows: “While I understand your concerns about progress with a medically complex child, we feel strongly that our approach can and does work for these children. Using the strategies at home while an experienced therapist guides you and your child in making specific skill gains is the best-case scenario. Putting food in front of a child on the tray doesn’t paint the whole picture. As the director of a feeding clinic, I have worked with hundreds of children who are NOT neurotypical, have multiple complex medical challenges, and who are severe enough in their feeding issues to require feeding tubes, using this approach. Most of my patients and my co-author’s clients have already had other therapies, from behavioral to SOS and sensory play therapies, and haven’t made progress. When the STEPS+ approach is applied, which can often take weeks or months for some families to get the hang of, with attention to gaining skills and addressing issues such as you describe your son having, these children make significant gains over time. Many have their feeding tubes removed. However, it doesn’t happen overnight, and it may not be what every parent feels is right for their child, and that’s okay. What is learned over a long period of time (months or years) cannot be undone and... read more
Facilitating (Not Forcing) Your Child’s Eating (Extreme Picky Eating Edition)

Facilitating (Not Forcing) Your Child’s Eating (Extreme Picky Eating Edition)

“I’m not forcing, I’m just aggressively facilitating…” I was watching a show on Netflix* when I caught this line, “I’m not forcing, I’m just aggressively facilitating.” My ears perked at the words facilitation and force, and of course made me think of children with extreme picky eating, of feeding, and the “aggressive facilitation” that can sometimes happen, even in feeding therapies. There is much research that suggests that when children are pressured or coerced to eat, overall intake, and intake of fruits and veggies decreases.  Here are a few examples… “…approximately half of all mothers and a greater proportion of fathers… ignore the child’s hunger signals and may use force, punishment, or inappropriate rewards to coerce the child to eat. These practices initially appear effective, but become counterproductive, resulting in poor adjustment of energy intake, consumption of fewer fruits and vegetables, and a greater risk of under- or overweight.” (Kerzner 2015) “…stringent parental controls can… limit children’s acceptance of a variety of foods and disrupt children’s regulation of energy intake by altering children’s responsiveness to internal cues of hunger and satiety.” (Brown & Ogden, 2004) Pressure to eat likely disrupts child’s ability to respond to internal cues of hunger and satiety (Carper et al., 2000) Pressure to eat … “exacerbate feeding problems and make mealtimes more negative for both parent and child.” (Harris 1992; Skuse 1993) Pressuring strategies could be implicated in the development and persistence of these problems (Farrow & Blissett, 2008) Pressure to eat predicted food avoidance behaviors: slow eating, emotional undereating, satiety responsiveness (Powell 2011) Parent prompts assoc w/ food avoidant behaviors, correcting for child emotionality and maternal... read more
Trust Your Turtle: Patience with Picky Eating Progress

Trust Your Turtle: Patience with Picky Eating Progress

Here’s a story I read recently and shared with a client when she asked, “How can I get my daughter to accept new foods on her plate once she’s feeling good about her safe foods? Can’t I just put them on her plate?”   A woman was with her college geology class on a field trip by a river. She noticed a turtle up the river bank near a road and worried that the turtle would get hit by a car. So, she carried the turtle back down the hill and put it in the water. Afterwards, the professor came to her and said, “That turtle has probably spent weeks crawling up the hill to lay her eggs in the muddy slope and now she will have to start all over again.” The moral was, “Ask the turtle first.” (Gloria Steinem from her book, My Life on the Road) (See below our clarification of “ask”. Most children won’t want to be verbally queried along the way. Our moral is to be responsive to your turtle.)    What does this have to do with feeding? Well, many children with extreme picky eating have anxiety around foods, and often have struggled for years. As parents, and even professionals, we hope for and want improvements NOW, or in say,  six weeks. But progress is generally slow, slow, slow, and it might not look like what we think of as “progress” (eating new foods). Sometimes when we miss early signs of progress (less anxiety, eating more safe foods, curious about foods but not yet tasting or eating them...) it is easy to want to rush the process, to pick up our little turtles and carry... read more
Confessions of a Mommy Feeding Therapist

Confessions of a Mommy Feeding Therapist

Working with families who struggle to feed their children on a daily basis, I often hear, “Your kids must be great eaters!” or “I bet you don’t have any trouble at the table with your kids!”.  Well, let me tell you, it isn’t quite that simple. As a feeding therapist, I am confident that what I am suggesting to parents will at least help, and not hinder, their child’s progress with eating. When I am working with someone else’s child, I can see their issues objectively. That makes it fairly easy to navigate next steps and to tease apart what may be going wrong. I have done loads of research and reading on the topic, wrote a book, and provide therapy for children from newborns to teenagers. I do trainings for other therapists, physicians, and students. So you would think I would have all the answers with my own three kids, right? Not so much. At home, things are a little more complicated. Do my kids sit at the table and eat at most meals? Yes. Are mealtimes a beautifully harmonious experience where all three of my children eat complicated dishes with a smile on their face? Hasn’t happened yet- I am still waiting. So what does a feeding therapist’s family mealtime actually look like?  Here is a window into my world: Setting:  We eat at our kitchen table for all meals, using family-style serving. I do a lot of “pile-on” and deconstructed meals and we don’t pre-plate the kids’ food. I work full-time and the kids have lots of activities, so our meals are fairly simple, and I get take-out about once a week.... read more
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